PROBLEM: Urban Heat Islands

Urban heat develops in ' islands' (grey areas in map below) where there are hard,imprervious surfaces like pavements which absorb the solar radiation. South Holyoke and the Flats have the greatest amount of impervious pavement.

URBAN HEAT ISLAND SOLUTIONS
AFFORESTATION

The city can be cooled by trees that provide shade and other vegetation that break up hard surfaces. 

PROBLEM: More severe rain evens and more precipitation will stress the drainage infrastructure of Holyoke and result in flooding.

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FLOODING SOLUTIONS
Green Infrastructure

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CROSS - CUTTING SOLUTIONS
Woonerf